Effect of GTE on STAT-1 activation. (A) DNA binding activity of STAT-1 in sham operated, carrageenan-treated (CAR) and GTE pre-treated mice (CAR + GTE). Nuclear extracts (10 μg) from lung sample were incubated with a 32P-labeled double-stranded oligonucleotide containing binding sequence for STAT-1 and separated by nondenaturing PAGE. The specificity of the retarded bands was demonstrated by competition with 100-fold excess of specific unlabeled oligonucleotide (not shown). (B) The intensity of retarded bands (measured by phosphoimager) in carrageenan-treated mice was significantly increased vs. sham group. GTE treatment significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced elevation of STAT-1 activity. *P < 0.01 vs. sham. °P < 0.001 vs. carrageenan.