Effect of GTE on TNF-α, level. Pleural injection of carrageenan caused by 4 h an increase in the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). GTE significantly inhibited TNF-α. Data are means ± SEM of 10 mice for each group. *P < 0.01 vs. sham. °P < 0.01 vs. carrageenan.