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Table 3 Estimated average change per year over 4 years in relative bronchodilator response (percent change Δ = post- minus pre-bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC/pre-bronchodilator value X 100) (±SE) in the placebo arm by GOLD grading for airflow obstruction (I&II, III, IV), age (≤50 yrs, >50 yrs), gender, and smoking status (sustained ex-smoker, intermittent smoker, continuing smoker)

From: Acute bronchodilator responses decline progressively over 4 years in patients with moderate to very severe COPD

Group FEV1 FVC
  Estimated change in Δ (SE) per yr p value Estimated change in Δ (SE) per yr p value
All -0.68 (0.08) <0.0001 -0.66 (0.09) <0.0001
GOLD Stage     
I & II -0.40 (0.11)1 0.0001 -0.28 (0.10)1 0.0085
III -0.86 (0.14)2 <0.0001 -0.89 (0.15)2 <0.0001
IV -2.08 (0.38) <0.0001 -2.11 (0.47) <0.0001
Age, yrs     
≤65 yrs -0.61 (0.11) <0.0001 -0.34 (0.12)3 0.0058
>65 yrs -0.77 (0.12) <0.0001 -1.04 (0.13) <0.0001
Gender     
Male -0.61 (0.10) <0.0001 -0.64 (0.10) <0.0001
Female -0.90 (0.17) <0.0001 -0.74 (0.19) <0.0001
Smoking status     
Sustained ex-smoker -0.91 (0.11)4 <0.0001 -0.88 (0.11)3 <0.0001
Intermittent smoker -0.54 (0.16) 0.0007 -0.55 (0.17) 0.0014
Continuing smoker 0.12 (0.25) 0.64 0.14 (0.26) 0.59
Inhaled steroids (baseline)     
No -0.30 (0.13)5 0.0273 -0.13 (0.14)5 0.35
Yes -0.93 (0.11) <0.0001 1.01 (0.12) <0.0001
  1. 1Significantly different from GOLD III (p = 0.0072 for FEV1 and p = 0.0008 for FVC) and GOLD IV (p < 0.0001 for FEV1 and p < 0.0001 for FVC).
  2. 2Significantly different from GOLD IV (p = 0.0018 for FEV1 and p = 0.0058 for FVC).
  3. 3Significantly different from age >65 (p < 0.0001).
  4. 4Signficiantly different from continuing smokers (p < 0.0001 for FEV1 and p = 0.0002 for FVC).
  5. 5Significantly different from those with baseline inhaled steroids (p = 0.0002 for FEV1 and p < 0.0001 for FVC).