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Table 4 Estimated average change per year over 4 years in % predicted bronchodilator response (Δ = % predicted post-bronchodilator minus % predicted pre-bronchodilator FEV1 or FVC) (±SE) in the placebo arm by GOLD grading for airflow obstruction (I&II, III, IV), age (≤50 yrs, >50 yrs), gender, and smoking status (sustained ex-smoker, intermittent smoker, continuing smoker)

From: Acute bronchodilator responses decline progressively over 4 years in patients with moderate to very severe COPD

Group FEV1 FVC
  Estimated change in Δ (SE) per yr p value Estimated change in Δ (SE) per yr p value
All -0.33 (0.03) <0.0001 -0.53 (0.05) <0.0001
GOLD Stage     
I & II -0.33 (0.04) <0.0001 -0.35 (0.07)1 <0.0001
III -0.35 (0.04) <0.0001 -0.68 (0.09) <0.0001
IV -0.41 (0.08) <0.0001 -1.05 (0.24) <0.0001
Age, yrs     
≤65 yrs -0.33 (0.04) <0.0001 -0.39 (0.07)2 <0.0001
>65 yrs -0.32 (0.04) <0.0001 -0.69 (0.08) <0.0001
Gender     
Male -0.30 (0.03)3 <0.0001 -0.51 (0.06) <0.0001
Female -0.43 (0.06) <0.0001 -0.61 (0.11) <0.0001
Smoking status     
Sustained ex-smoker -0.37 (0.03)4 <0.0001 -0.65 (0.07)3 <0.0001
Intermittent smoker -0.31 (0.05) <0.0001 -0.46 (0.10) <0.0001
Continuing smoker -0.18 (0.08) 0.0322 -0.16 (0.15) 0.29
Inhaled steroids (baseline)     
No -0.23 (0.04)5 0.0273 -0.27 (0.09)6 0.0024
Yes -0.39 (0.03) <0.0001 -0.70 ((0.07) <0.0001
  1. 1Significantly different from GOLD III (p = 0.0023) and GOLD IV (p = 0.0013).
  2. 2Significantly different from no baseline inhaled steroids (p = 0.0040).
  3. 3Significantly different from women (p = 0.0428).
  4. 4Signficiantly different from continuing smokers (FEV1 p = 0.0267; FVC p = 0.0038).
  5. 5Significantly different from no baseline inhaled steroids (p = 0.0045).
  6. 6Significantly different from no baseline inhaled steroids (p < 0.0001).