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  1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic diffuse interstitial lung disease, of which the etiology has been poorly understood. Several studies have focused on the relationship between IPF and diabetes m...

    Authors: Le Bai, Li Zhang, Tingyu Pan, Wei Wang, Dian Wang, Cassidy Turner, Xianmei Zhou and Hailang He

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:175

    Content type: Research

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  2. Respiratory fungal exposure is known to be associated with various allergic pulmonary disorders. Eosinophils have been implicated in tissue homeostasis of allergic inflammation as both destructive effector cel...

    Authors: Sijiao Wang, Zhilong Jiang, Liyang Li, Jun Zhang, Cuiping Zhang and Changzhou Shao

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:173

    Content type: Research

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  3. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently suffer from chronic bronchitis (CB) and display steroid-resistant inflammation with increased sputum neutrophils and macrophages. Recently,...

    Authors: Kristina Andelid, Karolina Öst, Anders Andersson, Esha Mohamed, Zala Jevnikar, Lowie E. G. W. Vanfleteren and Melker Göransson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:172

    Content type: Research

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  4. Comorbidities can complicate the management of severe asthma; therefore, the presence of comorbid conditions or traits often need to be considered when considering treatment options for patients with severe as...

    Authors: Peter G. Gibson, Charlene M. Prazma, Geoffrey L. Chupp, Eric S. Bradford, Mark Forshag, Stephen A. Mallett, Steve W. Yancey, Steven G. Smith and Elisabeth H. Bel

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:171

    Content type: Research

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  5. Most previous studies used aluminum hydroxide-absorbed allergen extracts in evaluating the potential therapeutic roles of intralymphatic allergen-specific immunotherapy (ILAIT). In this study, we evaluated the...

    Authors: Hye Jung Park, Sae-Hoon Kim, Yoo Seob Shin, Chul Hwan Park, Eun-Suk Cho, Seung Joon Choi, So Hyun Park, Joo Hyun Jung, Il Gyu Kang, Myoung Seok Lee, Dae Woo Kim, Sang Min Lee, Min-Suk Yang and Sang Pyo Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:170

    Content type: Research

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  6. In hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, outcomes markedly differ between locations, regions and countries. One possible cause for these variations in outcomes could be differences in patient treatm...

    Authors: Stephan Budweiser, Şevki Baş, Rudolf A. Jörres, Sebastian Engelhardt, Stefan von Delius, Katharina Lenherr, Jens Deerberg-Wittram and Andreas Bauer

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:168

    Content type: Research

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  7. Extracellular DNA (e-DNA) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are linked to asthmatics airway inflammation. However, data demonstrating the characterization of airway inflammation associated with excessi...

    Authors: Mustafa Abdo, Mohib Uddin, Torsten Goldmann, Sebastian Marwitz, Thomas Bahmer, Olaf Holz, Anne-Marie Kirsten, Frederik Trinkmann, Erika von Mutius, Matthias Kopp, Gesine Hansen, Klaus F. Rabe, Henrik Watz and Frauke Pedersen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:167

    Content type: Research

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  8. Obesity-associated asthma is a phenotype of severe asthma. Late-onset, non-eosinophilic and female-dominant phenotype is highly symptomatic and difficult to treat. Leptin, an adipokine, exerts an immunomodulat...

    Authors: Atsushi Kurokawa, Mitsuko Kondo, Ken Arimura, Shigeru Ashino and Etsuko Tagaya

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:166

    Content type: Research

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  9. The positive rate of pathogenic examination about tuberculosis is low. It is still difficult to achieve early diagnosis for some TB patients. The value of Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) in the diagnosi...

    Authors: Yidian Liu, Lan Yao, Feng Wang, Ziyong Sun, Yaoju Tan and Wei Sha

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:165

    Content type: Research

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  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at increased risk of poor outcome from Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Early data suggest elevated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SAR...

    Authors: Alastair Watson, Lisa Öberg, Bastian Angermann, C. Mirella Spalluto, Michael Hühn, Hannah Burke, Doriana Cellura, Anna Freeman, Daniel Muthas, Damla Etal, Graham Belfield, Fredrik Karlsson, Karl Nordström, Kris Ostridge, Karl J. Staples and Tom Wilkinson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:164

    Content type: Research

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  11. Availability of clinically effective and cost-effective treatments for severe asthma would be beneficial to patients and national healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and...

    Authors: A. Padilla-Galo, A. J. García-Ruiz, R. Ch. Levy Abitbol, C. Olveira, F. Rivas-Ruiz, N. García-Agua Soler, M. Pérez Morales, B. Valencia Azcona, B. Tortajada-Goitia, I. Moya-Carmona and A. Levy-Naon

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:163

    Content type: Research

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  12. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology, survival estimates and healthcare resource utilisation and associated costs of patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD) in France. ...

    Authors: Mouhamad Nasser, Sophie Larrieu, Loic Boussel, Salim Si-Mohamed, Fabienne Bazin, Sébastien Marque, Jacques Massol, Françoise Thivolet-Bejui, Lara Chalabreysse, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Eric Hachulla, Stéphane Jouneau, Katell Le Lay and Vincent Cottin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:162

    Content type: Research

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  13. Radiation pneumonia (RP) is a common adverse reaction to radiation therapy in patients with chest tumors. Recent studies have shown that diabetes mellitus (DM), which can cause systemic multisystem damage, spe...

    Authors: Guangtong Dong, Yuxiao Li, Qiyao Zhao, Bing Pang, Xin Qi, Junping Wei and Wei Hou

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:160

    Content type: Review

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  14. Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) often received broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and Acinetobacter baumannii (A.b.) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) were the most common pathogens causing ventilator-as...

    Authors: Tzyy-Bin Tsay, Wan-Hsuan Chang, Ching-Mei Hsu and Lee-Wei Chen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:159

    Content type: Research

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  15. RORγt is a transcription factor that enables elaboration of Th17-associated cytokines (including IL-17 and IL-22) and is proposed as a pharmacological target for severe asthma.

    Authors: David Lamb, Dorothy De Sousa, Karsten Quast, Katrin Fundel-Clemens, Jonas S. Erjefält, Caroline Sandén, Hans Jürgen Hoffmann, Marc Kästle, Ramona Schmid, Kevin Menden and Denis Delic

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:158

    Content type: Research

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  16. The long-term consequences of COVID-19 remain unclear. There is concern a proportion of patients will progress to develop pulmonary fibrosis. We aimed to assess the temporal change in CXR infiltrates in a coho...

    Authors: T. J. M. Wallis, E. Heiden, J. Horno, B. Welham, H. Burke, A. Freeman, L. Dexter, A. Fazleen, A. Kong, C. McQuitty, M. Watson, S. Poole, N. J. Brendish, T. W. Clark, T. M. A. Wilkinson, M. G. Jones…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:157

    Content type: Research

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  17. Although cardiac autonomic modulation has been studied in several respiratory diseases, the evidence is limited on lung transplantation, particularly on its acute and chronic effects. Thus, we aimed to evaluat...

    Authors: E. Tobaldini, G. D. Rodrigues, G. Mantoan, A. Monti, G. Coti Zelati, Ludovico Furlan, P. Tarsia, L. C. Morlacchi, V. Rossetti, I. Righi, L. Rosso, M. Nosotti, P. P. S. Soares, N. Montano, S. Aliberti and F. Blasi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:156

    Content type: Research

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  18. Systemic corticosteroid administration for severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) reduces the duration of hospital stays. Corticosteroid-sparing regimens have showed non-inferiority to higher accumulated ...

    Authors: Pradeesh Sivapalan, Jonas Rutishauser, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik, Jörg D. Leuppi, Lars Pedersen, Beat Mueller, Josefin Eklöf, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Vibeke Gottlieb, Karin Armbruster, Julie Janner, Mia Moberg, Therese S. Lapperre, Thyge L. Nielsen, Andrea Browatzki, Alexander Mathioudakis…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:155

    Content type: Research

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  19. Capnography waveform contains essential information regarding physiological characteristics of the airway and thus indicative of the level of airway obstruction. Our aim was to develop a capnography-based, poi...

    Authors: Barak Pertzov, Michal Ronen, Dror Rosengarten, Dorit Shitenberg, Moshe Heching, Yael Shostak and Mordechai R. Kramer

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:154

    Content type: Research

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  20. Although exposure to air pollution has been linked to many health issues, few studies have quantified the modification effect of temperature on the relationship between air pollutants and daily incidence of in...

    Authors: Rui Zhang, Yujie Meng, Hejia Song, Ran Niu, Yu Wang, Yonghong Li and Songwang Wang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:153

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:241

  21. The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), for many considered as a safe alternative to conventional cigarettes, has revolutionised the tobacco industry in the last decades. In e-cigarettes, tobacco combustion is re...

    Authors: Patrice Marques, Laura Piqueras and Maria-Jesus Sanz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:151

    Content type: Review

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  22. IL-33, which is known to induce type 2 immune responses via group 2 innate lymphoid cells, has been reported to contribute to neutrophilic airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However,...

    Authors: Daisuke Morichika, Akihiko Taniguchi, Naohiro Oda, Utako Fujii, Satoru Senoo, Junko Itano, Arihiko Kanehiro, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Masanori Yasuo, Masayuki Hanaoka, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira, Katsuyuki Kiura, Yoshinobu Maeda and Nobuaki Miyahara

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:150

    Content type: Research

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  23. To investigate whether the administration of hydrogen/oxygen mixture was superior to oxygen in improving symptoms in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).

    Authors: Ze-Guang Zheng, Wu-Zhuang Sun, Jie-Ying Hu, Zhi-Jun Jie, Jin-Fu Xu, Jie Cao, Yuan-Lin Song, Chang-Hui Wang, Jing Wang, Hui Zhao, Zhong-Liang Guo and Nan-Shan Zhong

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:149

    Content type: Research

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  24. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has been linked to thrombotic complications and endothelial dysfunction. We assessed the prognostic implications of endothelial a...

    Authors: Claudia Gregoriano, Dominik Damm, Alexander Kutz, Daniel Koch, Selina Wolfisberg, Sebastian Haubitz, Anna Conen, Luca Bernasconi, Angelika Hammerer-Lercher, Christoph A. Fux, Beat Mueller and Philipp Schuetz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:148

    Content type: Research

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  25. Patients with COPD are vulnerable to workforce detachment. Better knowledge of features associated with paid work loss might be of help to design and select appropriate interventions.

    Authors: Peter A. Jacobsen, Alex J. van ’t Hul, Remco S. Djamin, Jeanine C. Antons, Marianne de Man, Ulla Møller Weinreich, Martijn A. Spruit and Daisy J. A. Janssen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:147

    Content type: Research

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  26. Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, during treatment, cancer cells often de...

    Authors: Shaojia Wang, Chao Liu, Qing Lei, Zhengwei Wu, Xiangshuai Miao, Debing Zhu, Xu Yang, Na Li, Mingwei Tang, Yan Chen and Weiwei Wang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:146

    Content type: Research

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  27. This study was designed to investigate the difference between brain metastases (BM) and non-brain metastases (non-BM) treated by osimertinib in advanced patients with an acquired EGFR T790M mutation after obta...

    Authors: Changhui Li, Wei Nie, Jingdong Guo, Anning Xiong, Hua Zhong, Tianqing Chu, Runbo Zhong, Jianlin Xu, Jun Lu, Xiaoxuan Zheng, Bo Zhang, Yinchen Shen, Feng Pan, Baohui Han and Xueyan Zhang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:145

    Content type: Research

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  28. The OSMO study assessed the efficacy of switching to mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma that was uncontrolled whilst receiving omalizumab. The objective of this analysis was to assess the ...

    Authors: Mark C. Liu, Bradley Chipps, Xavier Munoz, Gilles Devouassoux, Miguel Bergna, Steven G. Smith, Robert G. Price, Dmitry V. Galkin, Jay Azmi, Dalal Mouneimne, Frank C. Albers and Kenneth R. Chapman

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:144

    Content type: Research

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  29. Survivors of prematurity are at risk for abnormal childhood lung function. Few studies have addressed trajectories of lung function and risk factors for abnormal growth in childhood. This study aims to describ...

    Authors: Jonathan C. Levin, Catherine A. Sheils, Jonathan M. Gaffin, Craig P. Hersh, Lawrence M. Rhein and Lystra P. Hayden

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:143

    Content type: Research

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  30. We previously reported a Phase 1/2 randomized placebo-controlled trial of systemic administration of bone marrow-derived allogeneic MSCs (remestemcel-L) in COPD. While safety profile was good, no functional ef...

    Authors: Daniel J. Weiss, Karen Segal, Richard Casaburi, Jack Hayes and Donald Tashkin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:142

    Content type: Research

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  31. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) represents a chronic lung disease with unpredictable course.

    Authors: Theodoros Karampitsakos, Sebastiano Torrisi, Katerina Antoniou, Effrosyni Manali, Ioanna Korbila, Ourania Papaioannou, Fotios Sampsonas, Matthaios Katsaras, Eirini Vasarmidi, Despoina Papakosta, Kalliopi Domvri, Eva Fouka, Ioannis Organtzis, Zoe Daniil, Ilias Dimeas, Paraskevi Kirgou…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:140

    Content type: Research

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  32. Data describing the effects of weight change across adulthood on asthma are important for the prevention of asthma. This study aimed to investigate the association between weight change from early to middle ad...

    Authors: Tao Wang, Yunping Zhou, Nan Kong, Jianzhong Zhang, Guo Cheng and Yuxin Zheng

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:139

    Content type: Research

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  33. Whole-body vibration training (WBV) performed on a vibration platform can significantly improve physical performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been suggested that an import...

    Authors: Rainer Gloeckl, Tessa Schneeberger, Daniela Leitl, Tobias Reinold, Christoph Nell, Inga Jarosch, Klaus Kenn and Andreas R. Koczulla

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:138

    Content type: Research

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  34. Recent studies have provided evidence for an important contribution of the immune system in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH...

    Authors: T. Koudstaal, D. van Uden, J. A. C. van Hulst, P. Heukels, I. M. Bergen, L. W. Geenen, V. J. M. Baggen, A. E. van den Bosch, L. M. van den Toorn, P. P. Chandoesing, M. Kool, E. Boersma, R. W. Hendriks and K. A. Boomars

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:137

    Content type: Research

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  35. In France, data regarding epidemiology and management of severe asthma are scarce. The objective of this study was to describe asthma phenotypes using a cluster analysis in severe asthmatics recruited in a rea...

    Authors: Chantal Raherison-Semjen, Eric Parrat, Cécilia Nocent-Eijnani, Gilles Mangiapan, Anne Prudhomme, Jean-Philippe Oster, Corinne Aperre de Vecchi, Cyril Maurer, Didier Debieuvre and Laurent Portel

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:136

    Content type: Research

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  36. Real-world data regarding outcomes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are scarce, outside of registries. In France, pirfenidone and nintedanib are only reimbursed for documented IPF, with similar reimburse...

    Authors: Manon Belhassen, Faustine Dalon, Maëva Nolin and Eric Van Ganse

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:135

    Content type: Research

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  37. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a common type of pulmonary hypertension and characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and constriction. Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) primarily sense alveolar hy...

    Authors: Yanxia Wang, Xiaoming Li, Wen Niu, Jian Chen, Bo Zhang, Xiumin Zhang, Yingmei Wang, Shaokang Dang and Zhichao Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:134

    Content type: Research

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  38. Nutritional immunity is the sequestration of bioavailable trace metals such as iron, zinc and copper by the host to limit pathogenicity by invading microorganisms. As one of the most conserved activities of th...

    Authors: Claire Healy, Natalia Munoz-Wolf, Janné Strydom, Lynne Faherty, Niamh C. Williams, Sarah Kenny, Seamas C. Donnelly and Suzanne M. Cloonan

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:133

    Content type: Review

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  39. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the commonest bacteria colonizing the airway in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization is associated with poor outcomes in patients ...

    Authors: Wang Chun Kwok, James Chung Man Ho, Terence Chi Chun Tam, Mary Sau Man Ip and David Chi Leung Lam

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:132

    Content type: Research

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  40. Limited data are available on practical predictors of successful de-cannulation among the patients who undergo tracheostomies. We evaluated factors associated with failed de-cannulations to develop a predictio...

    Authors: Chul Park, Ryoung-Eun Ko, Jinhee Jung, Soo Jin Na and Kyeongman Jeon

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:131

    Content type: Research

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  41. Fibrinogen is the first qualified prognostic/predictive biomarker for exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The IMPACT trial investigated fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium...

    Authors: Dave Singh, Gerard J. Criner, Mark T. Dransfield, David M. G. Halpin, MeiLan K. Han, Peter Lange, Sally Lettis, David A. Lipson, David Mannino, Neil Martin, Fernando J. Martinez, Bruce E. Miller, Robert Wise, Chang-Qing Zhu and David Lomas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:130

    Content type: Research

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  42. Many lung diseases are characterized by fibrosis, leading to impaired tissue patency and reduced lung function. Development of fibrotic tissue depends on two-way interaction between the cells and the extra-cel...

    Authors: Peta Bradbury, Cassandra P. Nader, Aylin Cidem, Sandra Rutting, Dianne Sylvester, Patrick He, Maria C. Rezcallah, Geraldine M. O’Neill and Alaina J. Ammit

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:129

    Content type: Research

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  43. Positive associations between ambient PM2.5 and cardiorespiratory disease have been well demonstrated during the past decade. However, few studies have examined the adverse effects of PM2.5 based on an entire pop...

    Authors: Zhan Ren, Xingyuan Liu, Tianyu Liu, Dieyi Chen, Kuizhuang Jiao, Xiaodie Wang, Jingdong Suo, Haomin Yang, Jingling Liao and Lu Ma

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:128

    Content type: Research

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  44. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is a proposed emphysema and airflow obstruction biomarker; however, previous publications have shown inconsistent associations and only one study ha...

    Authors: Katherine A. Pratte, Jeffrey L. Curtis, Katerina Kechris, David Couper, Michael H. Cho, Edwin K. Silverman, Dawn L. DeMeo, Frank C. Sciurba, Yingze Zhang, Victor E. Ortega, Wanda K. O’Neal, Lucas A. Gillenwater, David A. Lynch, Eric A. Hoffman, John D. Newell Jr, Alejandro P. Comellas…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:127

    Content type: Research

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  45. Accurate diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is essential to inform prognosis and treatment. In 2018, the ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT and Fleischner Society released new diagnostic guidelines for usual inter...

    Authors: Angela R. Shih, Chayanin Nitiwarangkul, Brent P. Little, Benjamin W. Roop, Sreyankar Nandy, Margit V. Szabari, Nathaniel Mercaldo, Sarah Mercaldo, Sydney B. Montesi, Ashok Muniappan, Sarita R. Berigei, David A. Lynch, Amita Sharma and Lida P. Hariri

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:124

    Content type: Research

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  46. Long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is as an established treatment option for chronic hypercapnic COPD patients. Beneficial effects have also been shown during exercise, but this is restricted to rehabili...

    Authors: Daniel Sebastian Majorski, Friederike Sophie Magnet, Saadia Thilemann, Claudia Schmoor, Wolfram Windisch and Sarah Bettina Schwarz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:123

    Content type: Research

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