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  1. There is a lack of mechanism-driven, clinically relevant biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mitochondrial dysfunction, a proposed disease mechanism in COPD, is associated with the rele...

    Authors: William Z. Zhang, Katherine L. Hoffman, Kristen T. Schiffer, Clara Oromendia, Michelle C. Rice, Igor Barjaktarevic, Stephen P. Peters, Nirupama Putcha, Russell P. Bowler, J. Michael Wells, David J. Couper, Wassim W. Labaki, Jeffrey L. Curtis, Meilan K. Han, Robert Paine III, Prescott G. Woodruff…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:126

    Content type: Research

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  2. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) predominantly affects individuals aged > 60 years who have several comorbidities. Nintedanib is an approved treatment for IPF, which reduces the rate of decline in forced vi...

    Authors: Ian Glaspole, Francesco Bonella, Elena Bargagli, Marilyn K. Glassberg, Fabian Caro, Wibke Stansen, Manuel Quaresma, Leticia Orsatti and Elisabeth Bendstrup

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:125

    Content type: Research

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  3. Asthma has been associated with impaired interferon response. Multiple cell types have been implicated in such response impairment and may be responsible for asthma immunopathology. However, existing models to...

    Authors: Ailu Chen, Maria P. Diaz-Soto, Miguel F. Sanmamed, Taylor Adams, Jonas C. Schupp, Amolika Gupta, Clemente Britto, Maor Sauler, Xiting Yan, Qing Liu, Gustavo Nino, Charles S. Dela Cruz, Geoffrey L. Chupp and Jose L. Gomez

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:122

    Content type: Research

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  4. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex pulmonary vascular disease characterized by an imbalance in vasoconstrictor/vasodilator signaling within the pulmonary vasculature. Recent evidence suggests that exposu...

    Authors: Shanshan Xu, Xuefeng Xu, Ziming Zhang, Lingling Yan, Liyan Zhang and Lizhong Du

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:121

    Content type: Research

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  5. The differential diagnosis fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) versus idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is important but challenging. Recent diagnostic guidelines for HP emphasize including multidisci...

    Authors: Sabina A. Guler, Eva Wohlfarth, Sabina Berezowska, Thomas K. Geiser, Lukas Ebner and Manuela Funke-Chambour

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:120

    Content type: Research

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  6. In the absence of PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 is challenging. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) detects pulmonary infiltrates with high sensitivity, but findings may be non-...

    Authors: Jochen Schneider, Hrvoje Mijočević, Kurt Ulm, Bernhard Ulm, Simon Weidlich, Silvia Würstle, Kathrin Rothe, Matthias Treiber, Roman Iakoubov, Ulrich Mayr, Tobias Lahmer, Sebastian Rasch, Alexander Herner, Egon Burian, Fabian Lohöfer, Rickmer Braren…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:119

    Content type: Research

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  7. Lung transplant (LTx) recipients are at increased risk for airway infections, but the cause of infection is often difficult to establish with traditional culture-based techniques. The objectives of the study w...

    Authors: Lisa I. Påhlman, Lokeshwaran Manoharan and Anna Stjärne Aspelund

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:118

    Content type: Research

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  8. Epidemiology of dysphagia and its drivers in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are poorly understood. The study aims to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia symptoms and their association with demographic and c...

    Authors: Nicole Pizzorni, Dejan Radovanovic, Marica Pecis, Rosaria Lorusso, Federica Annoni, Alice Bartorelli, Maurizio Rizzi, Antonio Schindler and Pierachille Santus

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:117

    Content type: Research

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  9. Waitlist mortality due to donor shortage for lung transplantation is a serious problem worldwide. Currently, the selection of recipients in Japan is mainly based on the registration order. Hence, scientific ev...

    Authors: Masaki Ikeda, Toru Oga, Toyofumi F. Chen-Yoshikawa, Junko Tokuno, Takahiro Oto, Tomoyo Okawa, Yoshinori Okada, Miki Akiba, Satona Tanaka, Yoshito Yamada, Yojiro Yutaka, Akihiro Ohsumi, Daisuke Nakajima, Masatsugu Hamaji, Maki Isomi, Kazuo Chin…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:116

    Content type: Research

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  10. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (iPPFE), and unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) are IIPs with chronic fibrotic phenotypes...

    Authors: Akira Yamagata, Machiko Arita, Hiromasa Tachibana, Fumiaki Tokioka, Chikatoshi Sugimoto, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Tomonori Tanaka, Hideki Yasui, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yutaro Nakamura, Takafumi Suda and Tadashi Ishida

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:115

    Content type: Research

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  11. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) might lead to oxidative stress, inflammation and elevated circulating copeptin, proANP and proADM levels. We aimed to evaluate whether the levels of these prohormones are higher i...

    Authors: Meropi Karakioulaki, Peter Grendelmeier, Werner Strobel, Thomas Schmid, Kathleen Jahn, Leticia Grize, Michael Tamm and Daiana Stolz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:114

    Content type: Research

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  12. Lower airway bacterial colonisation (LABC) in COPD patients is associated with increased exacerbation frequency and faster lung function decline. Defective macrophage phagocytosis in COPD drives inflammation, ...

    Authors: R. Singh, K. B. R. Belchamber, P. S. Fenwick, K. Chana, G. Donaldson, J. A. Wedzicha, P. J. Barnes and L. E. Donnelly

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:113

    Content type: Research

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  13. Influenza is a highly contagious, acute, febrile respiratory infection caused by a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, which belongs in the Orthomyxoviridae family. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure worsens...

    Authors: Wenxin Wu, Lili Tian, Wei Zhang, J. Leland Booth, Erola Ainsua-Enrich, Susan Kovats, Brent R. Brown and Jordan P. Metcalf

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:112

    Content type: Research

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  14. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive disorder with an estimated median survival time of 3–5 years after diagnosis. This condition occurs primarily in elderly subjects, and epidemiol...

    Authors: Fabrizio Luppi, Meena Kalluri, Paola Faverio, Michael Kreuter and Giovanni Ferrara

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:109

    Content type: Review

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  15. Overuse of short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA), which do not treat the underlying inflammation of asthma, is linked to poor clinical outcomes such as increased exacerbation risk. This study, as part of the SAB...

    Authors: Heinrich Worth, Carl-Peter Criée, Claus F. Vogelmeier, Peter Kardos, Eva-Maria Becker, Karel Kostev, Ingo Mokros and Andrea Schneider

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:108

    Content type: Research

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  16. Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are phenocopies, however the latter one has a clear trigger factor that is beryllium exposure. This study analyses single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a la...

    Authors: Björn C. Frye, Karoline I. Gaede, Cesare Saltini, Milton D. Rossman, Dimitri S. Monos, Ken D. Rosenman, Christine R. Schuler, Ainsley Weston, Ralf Wegner, Rainer Noth, Gernot Zissel, Stefan Schreiber, Michael Nothnagel and Joachim Müller-Quernheim

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:107

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  17. Cystic fibrosis is a debilitating, autosomal recessive disease which results in chronic upper and lower airway infection and inflammation. In this study, four adult patients presenting with cystic fibrosis and...

    Authors: Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Camila Dassi, Anitha Vivekanandan, Melissa Zoing, Richard G. Douglas and Kristi Biswas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:106

    Content type: Research

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  18. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease characterized by fibrosis and progressive loss of lung function. The pathophysiological pathways involved in IPF are not well understo...

    Authors: Shabarinath Nambiar, Britt Clynick, Bong S. How, Adam King, E. Haydn Walters, Nicole S. Goh, Tamera J. Corte, Robert Trengove, Dino Tan and Yuben Moodley

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:105

    Content type: Research

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  19. Workplaces with elevated organic dust levels such as animal feed barns also commonly have elevated levels of gasses, such as CO2. Workers exposed to such complex environments often experience respiratory effects ...

    Authors: David Schneberger, Upkardeep Pandher, Brooke Thompson and Shelley Kirychuk

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:104

    Content type: Research

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  20. Oral corticosteroids are important components of pharmacotherapy in severe asthma. Our objective was to describe the extent, trends, and factors associated with exposure to oral corticosteroids (OCS) in a seve...

    Authors: Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Amir Khakban, Hamid Tavakoli, Solmaz Ehteshami-Afshar, Larry D. Lynd and J. Mark FitzGerald

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:103

    Content type: Research

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  21. We would like to comment on the recently published article titled: “Circulating Vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patients” by Ricci et al. The authors grouped the patients in...

    Authors: Prateek Lohia, Shweta Kapur, Pragnesh Patel and Berhane Seyoum

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:102

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  22. Late onset non-infectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) confer a significant mortality risk. Lung transplantation (LTx) has the poten...

    Authors: Peter Riddell, Ram Vasudevan-Nampoothiri, Jin Ma, Lianne G. Singer, Jeff H. Lipton and Stephen C. Juvet

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:101

    Content type: Research

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  23. Whole lung tissue transcriptomic profiling studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have led to the identification of several genes associated with the severity of airflow limitation and/or the ...

    Authors: Xiuying Li, Guillaume Noell, Tracy Tabib, Alyssa D. Gregory, Humberto E. Trejo Bittar, Ravi Vats, Tomasz W. Kaminski, John Sembrat, Mark E. Snyder, Divay Chandra, Kong Chen, Chunbin Zou, Yingze Zhang, Prithu Sundd, John F. McDyer, Frank Sciurba…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:100

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been ...

    Authors: Atish Gheware, Dhwani Dholakia, Sadasivam Kannan, Lipsa Panda, Ritu Rani, Bijay Ranjan Pattnaik, Vaibhav Jain, Yash Parekh, M. Ghalib Enayathullah, Kiran Kumar Bokara, Venkatesan Subramanian, Mitali Mukerji, Anurag Agrawal and Bhavana Prasher

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:99

    Content type: Research

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  25. A common variant located in the promoter region of MUC5B (rs35705950) is the strongest risk factor for sporadic and familiar IPF, as well as a predictor of outcome. However, there are no data on the effect of MUC...

    Authors: Davide Biondini, Elisabetta Cocconcelli, Nicol Bernardinello, Giulia Lorenzoni, Chiara Rigobello, Sara Lococo, Gioele Castelli, Simonetta Baraldo, Manuel G. Cosio, Dario Gregori, Marina Saetta, Elisabetta Balestro and Paolo Spagnolo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:98

    Content type: Research

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  26. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), generated extracellularly by the action of autotaxin and phospholipase A2, functions through LPA receptors (LPARs) or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) to induce pro-fibrot...

    Authors: Shyam Nathan, Haijun Zhang, Mirko Andreoli, Philip L. Leopold and Ronald G. Crystal

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:97

    Content type: Research

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  27. No clinical studies to date have compared the inspiratory and expiratory airway lumen area between supine and standing positions. Thus, the aims of this study were twofold: (1) to compare inspiratory and expir...

    Authors: Shotaro Chubachi, Yoshitake Yamada, Minoru Yamada, Yoichi Yokoyama, Akiko Tanabe, Shiho Matsuoka, Yuki Niijima, Wakako Yamasawa, Hidehiro Irie, Mitsuru Murata, Koichi Fukunaga and Masahiro Jinzaki

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:95

    Content type: Research

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  28. Pneumonia is the most frequently encountered postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), which cause high morbidity and mortality rates. We aimed to develop a mode...

    Authors: Chaojin Chen, Dong Yang, Shilong Gao, Yihan Zhang, Liubing Chen, Bohan Wang, Zihan Mo, Yang Yang, Ziqing Hei and Shaoli Zhou

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:94

    Content type: Research

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  29. Cut offs for fat-free mass index (FFMI) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) are available for diagnosing low muscle mass in patients with COPD. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the frequency...

    Authors: Felipe V. C. Machado, Martijn A. Spruit, Miriam T. J. Groenen, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Paula P. van Melick, Nidia A. Hernandes, Annemie M. W. J. Schols, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F. M. Wouters and Frits M. E. Franssen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:93

    Content type: Research

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  30. People with rare lung diseases often suffer the burden of delayed diagnosis, limited treatment options, and difficulties in finding expert physicians. One of the reasons for the delay in diagnosis is the limit...

    Authors: Tiago M. Alfaro, Marlies S. Wijsenbeek, Pippa Powell, Daiana Stolz, John R. Hurst, Michael Kreuter and Catharina C. Moor

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:92

    Content type: Review

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  31. A single-inhaler extrafine triple combination of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP), formoterol fumarate (FF) and glycopyrronium (G) has been developed for maintenance therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary di...

    Authors: Jinping Zheng, Simonetta Baldi, Li Zhao, Huiping Li, Kwan-Ho Lee, Dave Singh, Alberto Papi, Frédérique Grapin, Alessandro Guasconi and George Georges

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:90

    Content type: Research

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  32. Ehealth platforms, since the outbreak of COVID-19 more important than ever, can support self-management in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this observational study is to ...

    Authors: Cathelijne M. van Zelst, Marise J. Kasteleyn, Esther M. J. van Noort, Maureen P. M. H. Rutten - van Molken, Gert-Jan Braunstahl, Niels H. Chavannes and Johannes C. C. M. in ’t Veen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:88

    Content type: Research

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  33. The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) has launched the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Quality Assessment Program (CQAP) since 2014. We aimed to reveal the influence of ...

    Authors: Hye Jung Park, Sung-Ryeol Kim, Sinae Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Hye Kyoung Kim, Sang In Ahn, Ji Hyeon Shin, Jae-Hyun Lee and Jung-Won Park

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:87

    Content type: Research

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  34. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a progressive and abnormal inflammatory response in the lungs, mainly caused by cigarette smoking. Animal models exposed to cigarette smoke (CS)...

    Authors: Jef Serré, Ajime Tom Tanjeko, Carolien Mathyssen, An-Sofie Vanherwegen, Tobias Heigl, Rob Janssen, Eric Verbeken, Karen Maes, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens and Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:86

    Content type: Research

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  35. Tbx2 encodes a transcriptional repressor implicated in the development of numerous organs in mouse. During lung development TBX2 maintains the proliferation of mesenchymal progenitors, and hence, epithelial proli...

    Authors: Timo H. Lüdtke, Irina Wojahn, Marc-Jens Kleppa, Jasper Schierstaedt, Vincent M. Christoffels, Patrick Künzler and Andreas Kispert

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:85

    Content type: Research

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  36. In the INBUILD trial in patients with chronic fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and a progressive phenotype, nintedanib reduced the rate of ILD progression with adverse events that were manageable fo...

    Authors: Vincent Cottin, Luca Richeldi, Ivan Rosas, Maria Otaola, Jin Woo Song, Sara Tomassetti, Marlies Wijsenbeek, Manuela Schmitz, Carl Coeck, Susanne Stowasser, Rozsa Schlenker-Herceg and Martin Kolb

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Christophe Pison, Pallav L. Shah, Dirk‑Jan Slebos, Vincent Ninane, Wim Janssens, Thierry Perez, Romain Kessler, Gaetan Deslee, Justin L. Garner, Jorine E. Hartman, Bruno Degano, Anna Mayr, Martin Mayse, Alexander D. Peterson and Arschang Valipour

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:83

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:62

  38. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Solmaz Ehteshami‑Afshar, Kristina Crothers, Benjamin Rodwin, Brett Bade, Cynthia Brandt and Kathleen M. Akgün

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:82

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:50

  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Jordan Smoothy, Alexander N. Larcombe, Emily K. Chivers, Vance B. Matthews and Shelley Gorman

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:81

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2019 20:21

  40. Short-term exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide is a risk factor for acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF). The comprehensive roles of exposure to fine particulate matter in AE-IP...

    Authors: Masahiro Tahara, Yoshihisa Fujino, Kei Yamasaki, Keishi Oda, Takashi Kido, Noriho Sakamoto, Toshinori Kawanami, Kensuke Kataoka, Ryoko Egashira, Mikiko Hashisako, Yuzo Suzuki, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Takafumi Suda and Kazuhiro Yatera

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:80

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Maintenance programs can sustain the benef...

    Authors: Léo Blervaque, Christian Préfaut, Hélène Forthin, Francis Maffre, Marion Bourrelier, Nelly Héraud, Matthias Catteau, Pascal Pomiès, Dany Jaffuel, Nicolas Molinari, Maurice Hayot and Fares Gouzi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:79

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Tsutomu Saito, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Tadahisa Numakura, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Akira Koarai, Naoya Fujino, Koji Murakami, Shun Yamanaka, Yusaku Sasaki, Yorihiko Kyogoku, Koji Itakura, Hirohito Sano, Katsuya Takita, Rie Tanaka, Tsutomu Tamada, Masakazu Ichinose…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:78

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:63

  43. Studies report high in-hospital mortality of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) especially for those requiring admission to an intensive care unit. Recognizing factors associa...

    Authors: Yang Cao, Zhenzhen Xing, Huanyu Long, Yilin Huang, Ping Zeng, Jean-Paul Janssens and Yanfei Guo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:77

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Several immune mechanisms activate in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Usually, coronavirus infection is characterized by dysregulated host immune responses, interleukine-6 increase, hyper-activation of cytotoxic CD8 T ...

    Authors: Alberto Ricci, Alessandra Pagliuca, Michela D’Ascanio, Marta Innammorato, Claudia De Vitis, Rita Mancini, Simonetta Giovagnoli, Francesco Facchiano, Bruno Sposato, Paolo Anibaldi, Adriano Marcolongo, Chiara De Dominicis, Andrea Laghi, Emanuele Muscogiuri and Salvatore Sciacchitano

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:76

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Asthma was identified as the most common comorbidity in hospitalized patients during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. We determined using a murine model of allergic asthma whether these mice experienced incre...

    Authors: Kimia Shahangian, David A. Ngan, H. H. Rachel Chen, Yeni Oh, Anthony Tam, Jing Wen, Chung Cheung, Darryl A. Knight, Delbert R. Dorscheid, Tillie L. Hackett, Michael R. Hughes, Kelly M. McNagny, Jeremy A. Hirota, Masahiro Niikura, S. F. Paul Man and Don D. Sin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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