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Table 3 Socioeconomic and environmental factors regarding habitual snoring by multivariate logistical regression models (N = 21,052)

From: Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

Variables Model I Model II Model III
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
Socioeconomic characteristics
Family income   < .001   < .001   < .001
< 800 vs. ≥ 2500 1.35 (1.18-1.54) < .001 1.43 (1.23-1.67) < .001 1.46 (1.23-1.75) < .001
800-2500 vs. ≥ 2500 1.12 (0.99-1.26) .072 1.16 (1.02-1.32) .024 1.12 (0.96-1.30) .142
Mather's education level       
Low vs. High NS   NS   NS  
Medium vs. High NS   NS   NS  
Father's education level     .007   < .001
Low vs. High NS   1.22 (1.08-1.38) .002 1.38 (1.20-1.60) < .001
Medium vs. High NS   1.04 (0.94-1.16) .427 1.14 (1.01-1.29) .034
Environmental exposures
Delivery       
Caesarean section vs. Vaginal Birth 1.21 (1.11-1.33) < .001 1.19 (1.08-1.31) < .001 NS  
Feeding patterns during the first four months       
Mixed/bottle feeding vs. Breastfeeding 1.16 (1.06-1.27) .001 NS    
Breastfeeding       
<6 months vs. ≥ 6 months 1.19 (1.09-1.29) < .001 1.14 (1.05-1.25) .003 1.17 (1.08-1.28) < .001
Pregnancy maternal smoking       
Yes vs. No 1.81 (1.42-2.38) < .001 1.68 (1.28-2.21) < .001 1.51 (1.07-2.13) .019
Household passive smoking       
Yes vs. No 1.18 (1.07-1.30) .001 1.16 (1.05-1.29) .003 NS  
  1. Family income was expressed in RMB(yuan)/person/month
  2. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval
  3. Model I adjusted for age and gender;
  4. Model II adjusted for age, gender, and all socioeconomic and environmental factors
  5. Model III adjusted for age, gender, all socioeconomic and environmental factors, and all health problems and family history simultaneously.